Why excess sugar is not good for health?
Little sap-sucking insects referred to as aphids can survive quite nicely on a mostly sugar-based diet, despite their inability to create necessary nutrients from scratch. The key to their success is the symbiotic bacterium, that lives within aphid cells and makes amino acids, the building blocks of proteins required for growth. The symbiotic bacteria — have completely different deoxyribonucleic acid methylation patterns depending on what kind of plant sap the aphid is intense.
DNA methylation could be a method of control gene expression that does not involve changes to the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence itself, which means genes may be turned “on” or “off” depending on environmental factors. The study is that the 1st to point out that deoxyribonucleic acid methylation patterns in symbiotic insect cells are related to host plant diet.
Allison Hansen, a prof of entomology at UCR, said the variations in deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and ensuing changes in gene expression purpose to shared metabolic pathways between the aphid and its symbiotic microorganism. By changing gene expression, the aphid will ensure the microorganism has the ingredients they have to provide essential nutrients from a sugar-rich diet.
“This study provides the fascinating insight into the close relationship that aphids have developed with their symbiotic bacterium as they have co-evolved along for about 150-200 million years,” Hansen same. “DNA methylation of bacteriocytes possible allows the aphids to figure alongside their resident bacterium to survive, particularly after they switch to a plant sap that’s not wealthy in nutrients.”
Hansen and Dohyup Kim, a doctoral student in UCR’s zoology department and lead author on the paper, analyzed one in every of the largest DNA methylation datasets for insects that rely on nutritional symbionts. The try used a model insect-microbe system comprising pea aphids and the bacterium Buchnera.
The researchers found that key aphid genes involved in nutritionary mutuality were activated in bacteriocytes — the aphid cells housing the microorganism — in low-nutrient diets. one among these genes is for a macromolecule that recycles ammonia into glutamine, an important ingredient required by the bacteria in sustaining aphids on a nitrogen-limited diet. Another cistron codes for a protein that transports glutamine into bacteriocytes, wherever it is often employed by the microorganism.
“In long-term, co-evolved animal-microbe relationships, several microbes kind shared metabolic pathways with their animal hosts, but how these processes are reciprocally regulated has remained a mystery,” Hansen said. “Our research points to epigenetic gene regulation through deoxyribonucleic acid methylation collectively thanks to inducing this regulatory response. However, a lot of work is required to completely understand our observations.”