Microbial effect on food spoilage

Food Spoilage is the process where food deteriorates and turns in to a form that are not edible to human. There are Various external forces are responsible for the spoilage of food and organisms that are capable of spoiling food. As this includes signs such as change in the appearance colour and texture of the food. The more it is spoiled the more it changes in unpleasant odour and undesirable taste.
In general food starts decomposing and spoils from the time of harvest due to the attack of microorganism and other enzymes. These include bacteria, yeast, moisture, temperature, old and other chemical reaction. Food waste acts as an important component of municipal solid waste.
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When bacteria break down the food, the acid and other waste product involves in the process as this can be responsible for spoilage of food. Though this bacterium may or may not be harmful this act upon the food products and produces unpleasant taste and sometimes a harmful effect on human. Bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae forms a great concern in the spoilage on food is because of their harmful effects on human beings on the other side there are useful bacteria such as acetobacter that helps in the process of vinegar and lactobacillus that helps in preparation of lactic acid.
Yeast are mostly used as a beneficial product in food industry as can be responsible for decomposition of the food with high sugar content. This method is useful in the production of various food and beverages.
As this spoilage and bacterial contamination is irresistible there are few methods through which the spoilage can be prevented. Food rotation system as this involves the ensure of first purchase and first consumed. Preservatives can expand the life span of the food from the time of harvest to storage. Refrigerating is another method as this involves freezing of food and beverages to a limited temperature to avoid from microbes. High quality vacuum pack and canning could also preserve food
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