Showing posts from May, 2018

Viruses, BiTEs, and T-cells: A Triple Threat to Tackle Cancer:

CAR-T takes T-cells, cells which seek out and/or destroy disease in the body and uses synthetic DNA to alter them so they can recognize cancer cells via a specific protein (of the scientists choice) on the cancer cell surface. When put back into the patient the CAR-T cells can now seek out cancer cells and destroy them by signaling the bodies own immune system to attack cancer, much like it would an infection. This one of the most promising new cancer therapies available, with the first drug of its kind (Kymriah), approved last year.

However, CAR-T is not without fault. The study highlights two major issues with CAR-T, using T-cells which seek out Folate receptor α (FRα), a protein on the surface of several cancers including ovarian3. First, they show that the CAR-T cells select for tumour cells which don’t have FRα, killing the ones with it and leaving a population without FRα behind; this essentially “evolves” a tumour to escape the treatment. Second, the tumour is often an immunos…

Tuberculosis infection and vaccination

Tuberculosis is generally caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs and sometimes affects the other parts of the body. This acts as an infectious disease as about 1% of the world population is affected by this infection every year. They are chronic cough with blood containing sputum, night sweats, weight loss, and fever. When the infection is spread to other organs it may cause a serious impact.
Tuberculosis acts as a communicable disease which spread through the air. People with infection in lungs spread infection through a cough, spit, speak and sneeze.
These are mainly found in the people who are infected with HIV AIDS and those who smoke. Deduction and treatment must be done in the early period based on the X-ray and microscopic examination of the body fluids.

They can be divided into pulmonary and extrapulmonary. Pulmonary infection is where the disease spread inside the lungs which causes a cough with blood in some extreme cases they may …

Breast Cancer in Iraqi Female Patients - A Clinicopathological and Immunological Study

Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women worldwide, including our country. It has been claimed that there is the propensity for the disease to affect younger women in developing countries.
The most important negative regularity of cell cycle progression is the tumor suppressor gene TP53, which has been recorded to be altered in 20-40% of human cancer.      AIM OF THE STUDY To assess the demographic characteristic and clinic-pathological presentation of breast cancer in Iraq in two groups (premenopausal versus postmenopausal women).To assess the frequency of P53 tumor suppressor gene expression immunohistochemically in the randomly selected group of these patients, and correlate that with the age of patients at diagnosis and with tumor stage and grade.PATIENT AND METHODS The study comprised 414 patients who presented with a palpable breast lump at the main referral and training center for early detection of breast tumor at Baghdad medical city teaching hospital. These …


Researchers have created the smallest lens in the world, capable of concentrating light down to dimensions of an atom.
Researchers have used gold nanoparticles as focusing lenses that allow flexing individual chemical bonds in molecules.
For centuries, scientists believed that light couldn’t be focussed down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter.
Now researchers have created the world’s smallest magnifying-glass which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms.

They used highly conductive gold nanoparticles to make the world’s tiniest optical cavity, so small that only a single molecule can fit within it, opening up new ways to study the interaction of light and matter. The cavity –called a ‘pico-cavity’ by the researchers – consists of a bump in a gold nanostructure the size of a single atom, and confines light to less than a billionth of a meter.
In the same way, as a hand plucks the strings of a guitar, the energy of ligh…


The brain takes more time to create and develop than some other organ in the body. Starting in the fifteenth day stretch of development and reaching out into the mid-20s, a continuous interaction of hereditary and natural components brings about the developing human brain, a structure made out of in excess of 100 billion neurons. The addiction and articulated changes in the brain happen amid youth and immaturity.
Amid typical immature mentalhealth, far-reaching basic and utilitarian changes happen quickly inside individual brain areas and in the associations between them. These progressions help the brain frameworks that control psychological, passionate, and social conduct to develop. The degree and intricacy of these progressions make the juvenile cerebrum addiction especially powerless against the antagonistic impacts of alcohol. To be sure thinks about have related overwhelming Alcohol and drug use amid youth with mischief to different mind structures which lead to drug addiction

Revive nerve perform in monkeys with encephalopathy using stem cells

A new study shows promise for victimization stem cells to make neurons that may replace those broken by encephalopathy.
A new study recently revealed within the journal Nature Communications shows promise for treating encephalopathy with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
iPSCs area unit cells that are taken from a baby or Associate in Nursing adult's tissue and genetically changed totally embryonic stem cells - that's, to be able to take the shape of the other adult cell sorts.

In the case of Parkinson's, scientists are victimization iPSCs to make a definite sort of nerve cell that's broken by the condition: the alleged dopaminergic neurons set within the mesencephalon. These brain cells area unit the first supply of neurochemical} - the neurotransmitter that helps to control voluntary movement, mood, stress, and reward, among alternative things.
Previously, researchers are able to restore motor perform in rats and primates with Parkinson's-like symptoms by …


Researchers reveal however neural stem cells derived from skin might facilitate to treat MS. Led by scientists at the University of Cambridge within the UK, the study took skin cells from adult mice with disseminated sclerosis (MS) so reprogramed them into neural stem cells (NSCs).
These "induced neural stem cells" (iNSCs) were transplanted into the rodents' humor. There, they reduced inflammation and repaired the injury to the central systema nervosum (CNS).

Lead study author Dr. Stefano Pluchino, of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences at the University of Cambridge, and team believe that their strategy may supply a promising treatment for MS and different medicine diseases.
MS may be a progressive disorder that's calculable to have an effect on over a pair of.3 million folks across the world.
While the precise causes of MS stay unclear, "an abnormal system response" is assumed to be concerned. Such a response results in inflammation within the syste…

Chemistry, Technology and Applications of Plant Seed Proteins

Plants and their materials have been utilized for their potential nutraceutical properties. Plant proteins are considered as a practical and naturally manageable wellspring of protein when contrasted with that of creature proteins. The requirements of the general population in creating the nation like India could be met through the plant proteins to cure protein ailing health. The 80% of vitality and 70% of protein is provided from the plant source. As indicated by the investigations announced by Pimentel and Pimentel, (2003), animal and fish proteins are unsustainable sources in contrast with that of soy, vegetable, canola, and oat. Vegetable and seed nutrition are a noteworthy part of a plant and well-known for significantly as a wellspring of sustenance

A huge volume of wastes and side-effects are delivered in organic product ventures amid its handling, for example, making of juices, jams, and confections. This waste incorporates huge no of seeds, peels which are by and large util…

Actualizing early physical restoration and assembly in the ICU: institutional, clinician, and patient contemplations

Consistence with moral measures Irreconcilable situations

SMP and PN have no contentions to pronounce. DMN is a chief agent on an NIH-subsidized multi-site randomized trial (R01HL132887) assessing sustenance and exercise in intense respiratory disappointment, and identified with this trial, is at present in receipt of an unlimited research concede and gave the amino corrosive item from Baxter Healthcare Corporation and a hardware advance from Reck Medical Devices.
Authors: Selina M. Parry, Peter Nydahl, Dale M. Needham
Keyword: Clinical, nursing_2018, Rehab, Healthcare, Medical
27th International Conference on Nursing and Healthcare
November 12-14, 2018 | Paris, France

Methods to avoid or control factors known to cause cancer

Cancer Prevention It is estimated that more than half of the estimated 600,920 cancer deaths that occurred in the United States in 2017 were related to preventable causes, including tobacco use, obesity, exposure to ultraviolet light, and vaccine-preventable infections with cancer-associated pathogens.

Advancing the science of cancer prevention. We work with a wide range of partners in biomedical research to develop strategies and promising therapeutics to stop cancer before it starts.
Our eight peer-reviewed medical journals including Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention and Cancer Prevention Research feature leading-edge research in the field.
Adopting healthy lifestyles that eliminate or reduce the risk of recognized causes of cancer, could decrease the number of people diagnosed with many types of the disease. Moreover, healthy approaches to living can reduce the risk of cancer recurrences and improve outcomes during treatment. 
Smoking causes about 30 percent of all …

What Is Cancer Research?

Cancer research transforms and saves lives.

The goal of studying cancer is to develop safe and effective methods to prevent, detect, diagnose, treat, and, ultimately, cure the many diseases we call cancer. The better we understand these diseases, the more progress we will make toward diminishing the tremendous human and economic tolls of cancer.

 Research has helped us accumulate extensive knowledge about the biological processes involved in cancer onset, growth, and spread in the body. Those discoveries have led to more effective and targeted treatments and prevention strategies.

Breakthroughs in prevention, early detection, screening, diagnosis, and treatment are often the result of research and discoveries made by scientists in a wide array of disciplines over decades and even generations.

Ultimately, cancer research requires partnerships and collaborations involving researchers, clinicians, patients, and others to translate yesterday's discoveries into today's advances and…

What Is Cancer?

Cancer isn't a single disease. The term cancer encompasses more than 200 diseases all characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Ignoring the body's signal to stop, malignant cells multiply to form tumors in organs and tissues or, in the case of blood cancers, crowd out normal cells in the bloodstream and bone marrow.
In a healthy body, cells grow and divide in a controlled, orderly fashion to replace those that have grown old or have been damaged and die by design in a process called apoptosis. Cancer occurs when these natural processes go awry.
When the genetic material of a cell – the DNA – is damaged, mutations can arise, potentially disrupting normal growth and division. An accumulation of mutations can turn normal cells into precancerous cells, which sometimes multiply and evolve into cancer cells. Cancer is a result of the accumulation of these cells.
Cancer is not an event, but a process that takes time, often years, to develop. The length of time varies …

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are a critical component of the effort to develop new ways to prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat cancer and other diseases. "Some people think that clinical trials are the last resort," says Jack Whelan of Andover, Mass., who was diagnosed with a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2007. "I am a survivor of a rare not-yet-curable cancer. Forward-looking science, what is available in clinical trials, was the best choice for me." For researchers and clinicians, trials are critical to determining the potential benefits and safety of investigational cancer therapies or for understanding if an existing medication could be useful for other types of cancer. Clinical trials are the last step before treatments are made widely available. They come after the completion of basic lab research and testing. Clinical testing in patients is key to understanding how a particular therapy will perform and what kinds of side effects may occur. Clinical trial partici…

Solar Greenhouse

A greenhouse is a structure secured with a transparent material (glass or plastic) that goes about as a solar gatherer and uses solar brilliant energy to develop plants. It has heating, cooling and ventilating gadgets for controlling the temperature inside the greenhouse.
Solar radiations can go through the greenhouse coating, yet the warm radiations produced by the items inside the greenhouse can't escape through the coated surface. Subsequently, the radiations get caught inside the greenhouse and result in an expansion in temperature.
As the greenhouse structure has a shut limit, the air inside the green­house gets advanced with CO2 as there is no blending of the greenhouse air with the encompassing air. Further, there is diminished dampness misfortune because of limited tran­spiration. Every one of these highlights helps to maintain plant development for the duration of the day and additionally amid the night and throughout the entire year.

To know more:…

The Chemistry of Food

The essential building blocks for everything in the world, be it living matter, including animals and plants, consists of chemicals. Nutrients in food such as carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber are all composed of chemical compounds. Most of these building blocks occur naturally and contribute to our diet and eating experiences.

However, certain chemicals have a variety of toxic properties, which can cause harm to the human and animal body. If we are exposed to them for a long time and that too at high levels, our body is subjected to compromise. Researchers help us to stay safe from these chemicals by establishing safe levels.
Even though Food Preservatives and coloring agents prolong the shelf life of foods; their over-consumption can cause ill-effects to the body. The presence of high levels of sugar in bottle drinks causes obesity in young children.
Certain food packaging materials contain chemical substances such as plastics, whose elements can easily migrate into food.
It i…


The different strains of Zika virus are collected, one among the queries is whether these Zika virus isolates have totally different growth properties in a form of human cell lines. To answer this question, then someone used a well-established technique, one-step growth analysis.
The virus replicates by the assembly of preformed parts into particles is the basic principle of virology. viral replicates by binary fission, which is totally different from cells.
The name of the one-step growth analysis comes from the fact that all infected cells are found in a culture, therefore the infection proceeds synchronously. This assay was the work of Max Delbrück and colleagues, who began in 1937 to review the T-even bacteriophages and developed the one-step growth analysis to review the single-cell life cycle of those viruses. Whereas the analysis of one-step growth was adapted for finding out the animal viruses replication.
From the cell monolayer, the medium is removed and the addition of vir…

Technology Advancements Crucial to Future of Energy Storage

With energy storage taking on an increasingly central role in grid modernization and the transition to renewable energy, technological advances in battery technologies remain crucial decreasing prices and increasing functionality and reliability. While there have been tremendous improvements to energy storage technologies, particularly Lithium-ion batteries, several barriers remain in the pursuit of wide-scale deployment on the grid and in electric vehicles. Chiefly, relatively low energy density and lengthy charging times are the most prohibitive technological shortcomings of Lithium-ion technology. The introduction of graphene, however, could revolutionize how energy storage technology is used, vastly increasing its market potential.

Graphene is a carbon-based material that is just one atom thick. Despite this, it is stronger than diamond and can conduct heat and electricity more efficiently than any other known material. It has an incredibly diverse suite of applications, ranging f…

Nurses Patient Safety risk, Phenomenal difference to the patients and the care of Midwife

“Excessive nurse workload linked to higher patient safety risk” Having an excessive daily nurse workload increases the risk of patient safety incidents and deaths, according to a ground-breaking study from Finland.   

UK study questions one of the most widely used childhood eczema treatments, One of the most widely used treatments for childhood eczema may not actually be helpful, according to UK researchers. A new award recognizing excellence in the provision of care for people who experience baby loss has been given to a leading midwife. Nursing staff who are pioneering the use of 24-hour “nurse-filled” antibiotic pumps say the approach has transformed the lives of patients and saved tens of thousands of pounds.

27th International Conference on Nursing and Healthcare
November 12-14, 2018 | Paris, France

nursing, nursing 2018, patient safety, Midwife

A study of OCT retinal nerve fiber layer

To assess the connection between axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) profile and to describe contrasts in optical coherence tomography RNFL of nearsighted glaucomatous eyes contrasted with non-glaucomatous eyes.
A survey of 170 eyes of 89 subjects with optical biometry and optical soundness tomography RNFL evaluation was led.
Temporal RNFL thickness demonstrated no relationship with AL in either glaucomatous or non-glaucomatous eyes. Nasal diminishing was most unequivocally connected with glaucoma in nearsighted eyes. Both nearsighted glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes had a mean RNFL thickness of 16– 22 µm more slender than mean RNFL thickness of typical AL eyes.
A normal of 16– 22 µm diminishing of RNFL contrasted with nomogram can be endured in patients with long AL. Unmistakable nasal diminishing likely speaks to changes from pivotal stretching. Transient RNFL diminishing in those with long AL has a tendency to be gentle, and noteworthy diminishing should r…

Energy Storage Systems

Energy storage can give a temperate and ecologically favorable strategy for reacting to vacillations popular gave that as the put-away energy isn't created from procedures or powers affecting nature, (for example, carbon-producing non-renewable energy sources).
The storage arrangement empowers abundance electricity created at 'off-crest' hours, to be put away and utilized later to take care of demand spikes, consequently decreasing the requirement for costly turning store and utilizing existing power plants more effectively (top shaving and load leveling of interest). Along these lines, we can conquer RES' principle burden, in this manner building up RES as dependable wellsprings of energy creation.
Diverse energy storage techniques exist, each with various attributes as far as its optimal application condition, its interface with various innovations, or reason for the application. For instance, given an area with morphological potential (e.g. ground stature potential)…

 Effects of Mosquito Saliva in Human Immune system

Mosquitoes play a major role in bringing the high risk of serious diseases that are transmitted by their bite. These mosquitos generally take the blood meal and inject the parasite in the skin of the host as this increase the severity of the disease they transmit. During blood feeding, blood-sucking mosquitoes inject saliva into the bodies of their source of blood. This saliva serves as an anticoagulant without it one might expect the female mosquito's proboscis to become clogged with blood clots.
Generally, Mosquito saliva has a very complex concoction. Many of which have unknown function. Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding, and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in the sugar meal. The composition of mosquito saliva is relatively simple, as it usually contains fewer than 20 dominant proteins.
This protein produces numerous effect on the immune system as the result the number of immune system cells affected is much larger. This immune re…


Donor age does not likely to influence the capability of stem cells from adult body tissues, latest studies report. The analysis of research on induced pluripotentstem cells proves that not only are typical signs of aging reversed in iPSCs, but cells derived from both older and younger donors show the same potential to differentiate into mature cells. This portrays iPSCs as a viable alternative to embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicine.

Unlike most cells in the body, stem cells develop into different cell types. Their discovery opened the possibility of culturing specific cells to treat damaged tissues, organs, degenerative diseases and genetic diseases.
Stem cells can be derived from two sources: embryos and adult tissues. It was believed that embryonic stem cells are the indispensable source, as these "young" cells have not undergone the same level of cell damage as older cells.
However, embryonic stem cells also have limitations such as ethical concerns, immunologi…


Often Spinal disorders patient encounter with enormous pain the Epidural injection helps them out. This article about Epidural injection is in reference to the post published in Pain doctor website. Epidural Injection is given to patients who have pain due to the inflammation around back and neck nerves. This epidural injection delivers the formulation of medicine (basically cortisone, a steroid.) directly to coat the nerve area. The guide and control a thin needle into this space, infusing a steroid, for example, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, or methylprednisolone as a mitigating and in addition a neighborhood analgesic, for example, lidocaine or the more drawn out enduring bupivacaine to numb the territory.
It is very much relieving for those who are under treatment of diseases like OsteoarthritisSpinal StenosisHerniated disc RadiculopathySciaticaSpondylolisthesisOsteoarthritisIntervertebral disc herniationWhiplashSpinal fractureDegenerative disc diseaseFailed back surgery s…